What is the art of light industry

What is the art of light industry:

The glass tube is used as a substrate, and after being locally heated on a dedicated torch flame, the technique of bending, blowing, pressing, welding, etc. is performed by using thermoplasticity and hot melt. It is a molding method for secondary thermal processing in the production of glass instruments and glass products such as glass thermometers, vacuum flasks, bulbs, syringes, ampoules, control bottles, and electric vacuum devices. According to the processing object, the lighter is divided into the following three basic types.

1 glass deformation processing. The glass is heated and softened, and operated by external force and inner air blowing, such as bending, blowing, drawing, tumbling, sealing the bottom of the tube, and the like. The processing of products such as the condensing tube core, the serpentine core, the vitreous bottom of the Thermos Flask, and the round bottom of the test tube belong to this example.

2 The glass parts are welded to each other. After the glass is fired, the welding is combined and shaped, and the whole is integrated, such as the glass pipe fittings, the T-joints, the inner and outer pipe sleeves, and the mouth ringing. The same kind of glass welding is the safest. For products made of different kinds of glass, if there is too much difference in thermal expansion coefficient, there will be a difference in shrinkage after cooling after welding, causing structural stress caused by volume effect, and bursting when stress exceeds glass strength. Quartz glass and ordinary glass welding belong to this example. The solution is to use several glass with a coefficient of thermal expansion as the intermediate transition glass. In general, the difference in thermal expansion coefficient between the two glasses should be less than 6 × 10 -7 / ° C. 3 glass parts and metal welding seals. Try to use a glass with a thermal expansion coefficient close to the metal to match the seal. When the difference between the thermal expansion coefficients of the two is too large, the intermediate transition glass, the soft metal filament or the thin foil may be used for non-matching sealing with the glass, and the structural stress generated at the sealing portion may be compensated by metal deformation.

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